A 41-year-old man with hairy cell leukemia developed erythroid crisis after the transfusion of red cell concentrate. He was diagnosed with Parvovirus B19 infection based upon the presence of B19-specific IgM antibody and viral DNA in the sera. The repository sample from the corresponding red cell concentrate was negative for B19 antigen by red cell hemo-agglutination method, but was found to contain B19 virus DNA. Furthermore, a genomic PCR direct sequencing showed that B19 in both patient's sera and repository sample were identical. This is the first report directly demonstrating the transmission of B19 through B19 antigennegative red cell concentrate transfusion. Further accumulation of the cases is warranted to estimate its incidence and to reconsider the screening methods of blood products.
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