Background: Levodopa remains the most effective symptomatic treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD) more than 50 years after its clinical introduction. However, the onset of motor complications can limit pharmacological intervention with levodopa, which can be a challenge when treating PD patients. Clinical data suggest using the lowest possible levodopa dose to balance the risk/benefit. Istradefylline, an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist indicated as an adjunctive treatment to levodopa-containing preparations in PD patients experiencing wearing off, is currently available in Japan and the US. Preclinical and preliminary clinical data suggested that adjunctive istradefylline may provide sustained antiparkinsonian benefits without a levodopa dose increase; however, available data on the impact of istradefylline on levodopa dose titration are limited. The ISTRA ADJUST PD study will evaluate the effect of adjunctive istradefylline on levodopa dosage titration in PD patients. Methods: This 37-week, multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group controlled study in PD patients aged 30–84 years who are experiencing the wearing-off phenomenon despite receiving levodopa-containing medications ≥ 3 times daily (daily dose 300–400 mg) began in February 2019 and will continue until February 2022. Enrollment is planned to attain 100 evaluable patients for the efficacy analyses. Patients will receive adjunctive istradefylline (20 mg/day, increasing to 40 mg/day) or the control in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by age, levodopa equivalent dose, and presence/absence of dyskinesia. During the study, the levodopa dose will be increased according to symptom severity. The primary study endpoint is the comparison of the cumulative additional dose of levodopa-containing medications during the treatment period between the adjunctive istradefylline and control groups. Secondary endpoints include changes in efficacy rating scales and safety outcomes. Discussion: This study aims to clarify whether adjunctive istradefylline can reduce the cumulative additional dose of levodopa-containing medications in PD patients experiencing the wearing-off phenomenon, and lower the risk of levodopa-associated complications. It is anticipated that data from ISTRA ADJUST PD will help inform future clinical decision-making for patients with PD in the real-world setting. Trial registration: Japan Registry of Clinical Trials, jRCTs031180248; registered 12 March 2019.
ASJC Scopus subject areas