Purpose: Aprepitant is used with dexamethasone and 5-HT3 receptor antagonists as an antiemetic treatment for chemotherapy, including cisplatin. Aprepitant is a substrate of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and is known to cause its inhibition and induction. In addition, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 substrate that induces CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 expression. In this study, we aimed to quantitatively evaluate the profile of CYP3A activity using its endogenous markers in non-small cell lung cancer patients receiving a standard cisplatin regimen with antiemetics, including aprepitant. Methods: Urinary 11β-hydroxytestosterone (11β-OHT)/testosterone concentration ratio and plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol (4β-OHC) concentrations were measured before and after cisplatin treatment (days 1, 4, and 8). CYP3A5 was genotyped, and plasma aprepitant concentrations were measured on day 4 to examine its influence on CYP3A endogenous markers. Results: The urinary 11β-OHT/testosterone concentration ratio in the 35 patients included in this study increased by 2.65-fold and 1.21-fold on days 4 and 8 compared with day 1, respectively. Their plasma 4β-OHC concentration increased by 1.46-fold and 1.66-fold, respectively. The mean plasma aprepitant concentration on day 4 was 1,451 ng/mL, which is far lower than its inhibitory constant. The allele frequencies of CYP3A5*1 and CYP3A5*3 were 0.229 and 0.771, respectively. In patients with the CYP3A5*1 allele, the plasma 4β-OHC concentration was significantly lower at baseline but more potently increased with chemotherapy. Conclusion: CYP3A activity was significantly induced from day 4 to day 8 in patients receiving cisplatin and three antiemetic drugs.
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