Upper tract urothelial carcinoma is more rare than bladder cancer, although they are both categorized as urothelial carcinoma. Because of the low incidence, little clinical evidence is available regarding the treatment of the former. However, recently such evidence has slowly begun to accumulate. The guideline presented herein was compiled for the purpose of ensuring proper diagnosis and treatment by physicians involved in the treatment of upper tract urothelial carcinoma. We carefully selected 16 clinical questions essential for daily clinical practice and grouped them into four major categories: epidemiology, diagnosis, surgery and systemic chemotherapy/other matters. Related literature was searched using PubMed and Japan Medical Abstracts Society databases for articles published between 1987 and 2013. If the judgment was made on the basis of insufficient or inadequate evidence, the grade of recommendation was determined on the basis of committee discussions and resultant consensus statements. Here, we present a short English version of the original guideline, and overview its key clinical issues.
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