Background: Postoperative shoulder imbalance (PSI) has a negative impact on the surgical outcomes of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors of PSI in patients with Lenke type 5C curves. Methods: This study included 100 patients who underwent posterior correction surgery using pedicle screw constructs for Lenke type 5C curves. The mean age of the patients at surgery was 15.5 ± 2.3 years, and the mean follow-up period was 36.6 ± 15.0 months. The subjects were classified into the following two groups: PSI and non-PSI. Radiographic parameters, including the preoperative and 2-year postoperative coronal and sagittal profiles, were compared between the two groups. Result: PSI was found in eight patients (8.0%). The preoperative Cobb angles were 47.3° ± 8.7° and 48.0° ± 3.9° in the non-PSI and PSI groups, respectively. The correction rate in the PSI group was significantly higher than that in the non-PSI group (81.0% ± 17.7% vs. 67.7% ± 14.7%; p = 0.018). The preoperative T1 tilt angle in the PSI group was significantly larger than that in the non-PSI group (6.1° ± 3.3° vs. 3.1° ± 2.8°; p = 0.005). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve was 0.769 (p = 0.012, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.556–0.982) and 0.763 (p = 0.014, 95% CI, 0.598–0.928) for the correction rate and preoperative T1 tilt, respectively. The cut-off value was 73% and 4° for the correction rate and preoperative T1, respectively. Conclusion: PSI was found in 8.0% of Lenke type 5C curves. Excessive correction of the lumbar curve of >73% and preoperative T1 tilt of >4° can be risk factors for PSI in patients with Lenke type 5C curve.
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