In a direct-injection (DI) engine, the in-cylinder flow is complex. Fluctuations of DI and in-cylinder flow, and the relationships between those fluctuations, are considered to affect the cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of combustion. However, neither the relationship between the injection conditions and the CCV of the in-cylinder flow nor the effect of the in-cylinder tumble flow on the spray has been clarified in detail. In this study, a single-cylinder optical engine was used to perform high spatial resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements and to photograph spray behavior throughout the cylinder. The spray timing was changed to investigate the timing's effects on the in-cylinder flow, the CCV, and tumble vortex center behavior. The penetration length was calculated from the spray images and compared with the PIV measurement results. The PIV results showed that the behavior of the bulk flow in the cylinder, the position of the center of the tumble vortex, and the CCV of the velocity changed depending on the presence or absence of DI and the injection timing. The overall trend was that the shorter the time elapsed after injection, the stronger the effect on the in-cylinder flow remained. The results of spray imaging revealed that the ambient flow velocity affected the direct spray at the time of injection when the flow velocity was high in the spray direction and that the spray extended faster. In addition to the advantage of the longer diffusion time, the fast in-cylinder flow in the same direction as the direct jet did not cause much momentum exchange with the spray, while making it easier for the spray to diffuse throughout.
ASJC Scopus subject areas