Uterus transplantation (UTx) is now a treatment for women with uterine factor infertility to have a child. However, UTx is still largely at the experimental stage, and many medical issues remain unsolved. Therefore, adequate studies in large animals including non-human primates are required for validation of these issues. UTx research, especially in non-human primates, can provide important information for its full establishment in humans due to the anatomical and physiological similarities between the two. We accumulated data from UTx studies using cynomolgus macaques since 2009 and established autologous and allogeneic UTx models which led to deliveries after performing the procedure. In this paper, we summarized key points to develop UTx models in cynomolgus macaques based on our experience. UTx models in non-human primates can surely contribute new and beneficial knowledge in this field and can be useful for the further development of UTx in humans.
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