Background: Surgical treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) has changed significantly with the advent of new medical devices and surgical procedures. Today, pre- and postoperative management differs widely between institutions. The purpose of this study is to establish consensus regarding the surgical management of AIS in Japan through the use of a questionnaire survey of experienced spine deformity surgeons. Methods: From February to March 2020, experienced spine deformity surgeons who perform more than 25 cases of AIS surgery annually were asked to respond to a questionnaire request regarding AIS surgical management formulated by the International Affairs Committee of the Japanese Scoliosis Society. For each of the questions, consensus was achieved upon a 70% agreement among respondents. Results: Responses were received from 25 of the 32 (78%) experienced spine deformity surgeons. The average age of the responding surgeons was 52 years with an average practice experience of 28 year. Consensus was achieved on 74 (76%) of the 97 aspects of care presented in the questionnaire and is broken down as follows: 12 of 17 items for preoperative management, all 5 items for perioperative management, 11 of 14 items for surgical technique, 9 of 15 items for implant selection, 6 of 8 items for bone grafting, 7 of 10 items for blood conservation, 5 of 7 items for postoperative management, all 17 items for postoperative evaluation, and 2 of 4 items for aftercare. Conclusions: Expert consensus was achieved on 74 aspects of the surgical management of AIS in Japan. In implant selection and aftercare, consensus was obtained in less than 70% of the aspects, revealing differences in AIS management between institutions. These findings on AIS surgery in Japan, informed by expert opinion, will conceivably help spine deformity surgeons determine appropriate surgical management of AIS.
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