Background/Aim: Because bicyclists and motorcyclists with oral and maxillofacial injuries often suffer from disabilities requiring long-term treatment, reducing the severity of such injuries is a valuable objective for improving these people's quality of life (QOL). The aims of this study were, first, to present the prevalence and patterns of oral and maxillofacial injuries of bicyclists and motorcyclists and to compare the features of these injuries and, second, to determine the factors contributing to long-term hospitalization for these patients and to propose effective preventive measures. Material and Methods: This was a single-center retrospective analysis. Hospital records from 2011 through 2018 were reviewed for all patients who had sustained oral and maxillofacial injuries in bicycle or motorcycle collisions and had presented at a university hospital which was the only hospital in the region attended 24 hours per day by oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Characteristics of the oral and maxillofacial injuries, injury severity, and factors influencing the length of hospitalization were examined. Results: Records of 130 patients (82 bicyclists and 48 motorcyclists) with a mean age of 28.0 years were analyzed. Thirty-three patients (25.4%) had maxillofacial fractures, with 41 fracture lines while 103 patients (79.2%) had dental injuries and 57 patients (43.8%) had soft-tissue injuries. The distribution and prevalence of oral and maxillofacial injuries were similar for bicyclists and motorcyclists. However, motorcyclists had significantly higher Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores for facial injuries and the maximum AIS score than did bicyclists. According to a multiple regression analysis, the number of fracture lines and the requirement for intermaxillary fixation were independent factors influencing long-term hospitalization (standard regression coefficients: 6.795 and 6.715, respectively; P <.001). Conclusions: The number of fracture lines and the use of intermaxillary fixation were independent factors influencing long-term hospitalization of both bicyclists and motorcyclists with oral and maxillofacial injuries.
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