Aims: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome caused by a germline APC mutation. A recent study showed the enrichment of pyloric gland adenomas (PGAs) of the stomach, in addition to fundic gland polyps (FGPs) and foveolar-type adenomas (FAs), in patients with FAP. In the present study, we analysed the genetic alterations in these FAP-associated gastric lesions. Methods and results: Mutational statuses of GNAS and KRAS, which are frequently mutated in sporadic PGAs, as well as those of APC, were examined in PGAs, FAs and FGPs in patients with FAP using Sanger sequencing. Our analysis identified GNAS mutations in five of six PGAs (83%), but in none of the three FAs or the 40 FGPs examined. KRAS mutations were identified in four PGAs (67%), one FA (33%) and one FGP (3%). Somatic truncating APC mutations were found in all PGAs (100%), two FAs (67%) and 14 FGPs (47%). We additionally analysed sporadic PGAs of the stomach and duodenum and identified truncating APC mutations in 11 of 25 lesions (44%). Conclusions: FAP-associated and sporadic PGAs not only show similar morphologies, but also share common genetic aberrations, including mutations of GNAS, KRAS and APC.
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