Background: The National Nutritional Survey in Japan (NNSJ) was initiated in 1946. Using the majority of the participants for NNSJ, the National Survey on Circulatory Disorders (NSCD) has been conducted every 10 year since 1960. We compared fatty acids intakes obtained from NNSJ and serum lipid profiles from NSCD conducted in 1990. Methods: A total of 8344 community residents (4856 women and 3488 men, age ≥ 30) from 300 randomly selected districts participated in the both surveys in 1990. At baseline, history, physical, and blood biochemical measurement and a nutritional survey were performed. We estimated nutrient intakes of each household member by dividing household intake data proportionally using average intakes by sex and age groups calculated for NNSJ95. Results: Total fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), dietary cholesterol, and Keys dietary lipid factor (KEYS) were inversely associated with age in both men and women (all Ps < 0.001). In women, age and body mass index (BMI) adjusted serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) were positively associated with SFA, total fat intakes (%kcal), and with KEYS (P < 0.001). In men, age-BMI adjusted HDLc was not associated with SFA, total fat intakes, and with KEYS factors unlike in women. Other associations were similar to those in women. Conclusions: The total fatty acids, SFA intakes, and KEYS lipid factor obtained from NNSJ were significantly associated with serum total and LDL cholesterol from the National Survey on Circulatory Disorders conducted in 1990.
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