Background: Metachronous colorectal lesions sometimes occur at anastomotic sites following colorectal surgery, which increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer. However, these lesions are difficult to treat even with minimally invasive methods such as endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Thus, we aimed to evaluate the outcomes of ESD for colorectal lesions at anastomotic sites following colorectal surgery. Methods: We retrospectively investigated 11 patients with post-surgical colorectal lesions at anastomotic sites who later underwent ESD from May 2010 to April 2019 at Keio University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. We examined the patients’ background (tumor location, macroscopic type, tumor size, histological type, and depth of invasion) and treatment outcomes (procedure duration, en bloc resection rate, R0 resection rate, and adverse events). Results: The patients’ mean age was 66 years. There were two lesions in the transverse colon, six in the rectum, one in the anal canal, and two in the ileal pouch. The median tumor size was 25 mm. The macroscopic types were the protruded type (1 lesion) and the flat or depressed type (10 lesions). The pathological diagnoses were adenoma (4 lesions), intramucosal cancer (corresponding to high-grade dysplasia) (6 lesions), and muscularis propria cancer (1 lesion). The median procedure duration was 50 min; en bloc resection rate was 88.9% and R0 resection rate was 66.7%. The only adverse event was delayed post-ESD bleeding. Conclusions: A high en bloc resection rate without perforation was achieved with ESD for lesions at anastomotic sites. Although ESD for lesions at anastomotic sites is a technically challenging procedure because of severe submucosal fibrosis, this approach could prevent the need for repeated surgical resection.
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