Objective: Brain-machine interface training was developed for upper-extremity rehabilitation for patients with severe hemiparesis. Its clinical application, however, has been limited because of its lack of feasibility in real-world rehabilitation settings. We developed a new compact task-specific brain-machine interface system that enables task-specific training, including reach-and-grasp tasks, and studied its clinical feasibility and effectiveness for upper-extremity motor paralysis in patients with stroke. Design: Prospective before-after study. Subjects: Twenty-six patients with severe chronic hemiparetic stroke. Methods: Participants were trained with the brainmachine interface system to pick up and release pegs during 40-min sessions and 40 min of standard occupational therapy per day for 10 days. Fugl-Meyer upper-extremity motor (FMA) and Motor Activity Log-14 amount of use (MAL-AOU) scores were assessed before and after the intervention. To test its feasibility, 4 occupational therapists who operated the system for the first time assessed it with the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with assistive Technology (QUEST) 2.0. Results: FMA and MAL-AOU scores improved significantly after brain-machine interface training, with the effect sizes being medium and large, respectively (p < 0.01, d = 0.55; p < 0.01, d = 0.88). QUEST effectiveness and safety scores showed feasibility and satisfaction in the clinical setting. Conclusion: Our newly developed compact brainmachine interface system is feasible for use in realworld clinical settings.
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