Delivery following uterus transplantation (UTx)—an approach for treating uterine factor infertility—has not been reported in nonhuman primate models. Here, six female major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-defined cynomolgus macaques that underwent allogeneic UTx were evaluated. Antithymocyte globulin and rituximab were administered to induce immunosuppression and a triple maintenance regimen was used. Menstruation resumed in all animals with long-term survival, except one, which was euthanized due to infusion associated adverse reaction to antithymocyte globulin. Donor-specific antibodies (DSA) were detected in cases 2, 4, and 5, while humoral rejection occurred in cases 4 and 5. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) developed in cases 2 and 3. Pregnancy was attempted in cases 1, 2, and 3 but was achieved only in case 2, which had haploidentical donor and recipient MHCs. Pregnancy was achieved in case 2 after recovery from graft rejection coincident with DSA and PTLD. A cesarean section was performed at full-term. This is the first report of a successful livebirth following allogeneic UTx in nonhuman primates, although the delivery was achieved via UTx between a pair carrying haploidentical MHCs. Experimental data from nonhuman primates may provide important scientific knowledge needed to resolve unsolved clinical issues in UTx.
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