Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are rare mesenchymal tumors that exhibit a characteristic morphology and a finely granular cytoplasm. The genetic alterations responsible for GCT tumorigenesis had been unknown until recently, when loss-of-function mutations of ATP6AP1 and ATP6AP2 were described. Thus, we performed whole-exome sequencing, RNA sequencing, and targeted sequencing of 51 GCT samples. From these genomic analyses, we identified mutations in genes encoding vacuolar H + -ATPase (V-ATPase) components, including ATP6AP1 and ATP6AP2, in 33 (65%) GCTs. ATP6AP1 and ATP6AP2 mutations were found in 23 (45%) and 2 (4%) samples, respectively, and all were truncating or splice site mutations. In addition, seven other genes encoding V-ATPase components were also mutated, and three mutations in ATP6V0C occurred on the same amino acid (isoleucine 136). These V-ATPase component gene mutations were mutually exclusive, with one exception. These results suggest that V-ATPase function is impaired in GCTs not only by loss-of-function mutations of ATP6AP1 and ATP6AP2 but also through mutations of other subunits. Our findings provide additional support for the hypothesis that V-ATPase dysfunction promotes GCT tumorigenesis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research