Mouse FBJ virus-induced osteosarcoma FBJ-S1 cells rich in GD1a are not readily metastatic, whereas FBJ-LL cells with low levels of GD1a are highly metastatic. GD1a was previously shown to suppress metastasis of mouse FBJ cells and to upregulate caveolin-1 and stromal interaction molecule 1 expression. The present study demonstrates that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression renders FBJ-LL cells invasive. MMP-9 is inversely regulated by GD1a, based upon four observations: MMP-9 mRNA content was 5 times higher in FBJ-LL cells than FBJ-S1 cells; a GD1a-re-expressing FBJ-LL cell variant produced through β1,4GalNAcT-1 cDNA transfection expressed lower levels of MMP-9; exogenous addition of GD1a to FBJ-LL cells decreased MMP-9 production in a dose- and time-dependent manner; and treatment of GD1a-rich cells with D-PDMP or siRNA targeting St3gal2 decreased GD1a expression, but augmented MMP-9 expression. This is the first report demonstrating that GD1a negatively regulates expression of MMP-9 at the transcriptional level.
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