## 抄録

We present and analyze a gauge-invariant quantum theory of the Friedmann- Robertson-Walker universe with dust. We construct the reduced phase space spanned by gauge-invariant quantities by using the so-called relational formalism at the classical level. The reduced phase space thereby obtained can be quantized in the same manner as an ordinary mechanical system. This quantization procedure realizes a possible resolution to the problem of time and observables in canonical quantum gravity. We analyze the classical initial singularity of the theory by evolving a wave packet backward in time and evaluating the expectation value of the scale factor. It is shown that the initial singularity of the universe is avoided by the quantum gravitational effects.

本文言語 | English |
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ページ | 97-100 |

ページ数 | 4 |

出版ステータス | Published - 2009 12 1 |

イベント | 19th Workshop on General Relativity and Gravitation in Japan, JGRG 2009 - Tokyo, Japan 継続期間: 2009 11 30 → 2009 12 4 |

### Other

Other | 19th Workshop on General Relativity and Gravitation in Japan, JGRG 2009 |
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Country | Japan |

City | Tokyo |

Period | 09/11/30 → 09/12/4 |

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics