Density functional computations are used to evaluate the geometric, electronic, and optical properties of endohedral aluminum clusters X@Al 12 (X = B, Al, Si, P) and their assemblies. All X@Al 12+/0/- clusters are perfect or slightly distorted icosahedral structures, with the exception of Al13+, which is highly distorted. The projected density of states (PDOS) onto the spherical harmonics of monomers clearly reveals superatom behavior and electron shell closings of F orbitals in a 40-electron species. The electronic absorption spectrum of SiAl12 is analyzed in terms of the superatom orbitals. The optimized structures of X@Al12-Y@Al12 (X-Y = Si-Si, B-P, Al-P) dimers are constructed by facing the sides of the monomers in a staggered fashion. The PDOS of the dimers mostly exhibit five hybridizations: S, P, SD, PF, and SDG. The exceptions are HOMO, which possesses a DFG hybridized character and lies between the PF and SDG regions, and LUMO, which possesses a DG hybridized character. By analyzing the simulated absorption spectra of the B@Al12-P@Al12 and Al13-P@Al12 heterodimers, charge transfers from B/Al@Al12 to P@Al12 are found in the visible region, weakly accompanying the opposite charge transfer. The heterodimers have substantial charge carriers, estimated as the difference in electron counts from the closed-shell Si@Al12, with slight charge depletions (∼0.2). The charge distributions in B@Al 12 and P@Al12 are essentially unaltered by the insertion of Si@Al12 into the heterodimer, resulting in that the heterotrimer possesses a larger dipole moment than the heterodimer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films