GPR40 is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptors. Recent studies suggest that GPR40 is highly expressed in pancreatic β cells and insulin-secreting cell lines, and that fatty acids increase intracellular calcium concentration and amplify glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by activating GPR40. Despite identification of the Arg211His polymorphism in the GPR40 gene, there have been no clinical studies concerning this polymorphism. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of the GPR40 gene Arg211His polymorphism on clinical and metabolic parameters, including serum insulin level, in 327 healthy Japanese men, using the TaqMan polymerase chain reaction method. Serum insulin level, homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and beta-cell function (HOMA-β) were significantly different (P = .0075, .0152, and .0039, respectively) and were lowest in Arg/Arg homozygotes and highest in His/His homozygotes, although plasma glucose and serum lipids were not significantly different. Multiple regression analyses showed that serum insulin level, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-β were significantly correlated with this polymorphism after adjusting for age and body mass index. After Bonferroni's correction for multiple comparisons was made, only HOMA-β was significantly different among the 3 genotypes. These results suggest that the Arg211His polymorphism in the GPR40 gene may contribute to the variation of insulin secretory capacity in Japanese men.
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