Acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis (APMF) is a rare subtype of acute myeloid leukemia characterized by acute onset of cytopenias and bone marrow fibrosis in the absence of splenomegaly. Because the prognosis of APMF is extremely poor even after chemotherapy, hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been used to treat APMF. However, the outcome after HCT for APMF remains unclear. To evaluate the outcomes and prognostic factors after HCT as a therapeutic modality for APMF, we retrospectively analyzed the Japanese registration data of 40 APMF patients who received allogeneic and syngeneic HCT between 2005 and 2015. The median age at HCT was 53.5 years (range, 16 to 70). The disease status at HCT was first complete remission (CR1) in 13 patients (33%). The probability of overall survival and the cumulative incidence of relapse at 3 years were 24% and 59%, respectively. Univariate analysis identified that female sex and disease status CR1 at the time of HCT were significantly associated with higher overall survival. Although APMF patients have a poor long-term prognosis even after syngeneic and allogeneic HCT, these data suggested that allogeneic HCT offered a curative option for APMF.
ASJC Scopus subject areas