Background: High-mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB1) has recently been identified as an important mediator of various kinds of acute and chronic inflammation. A method for efficiently removing HMGB1 from the systemic circulation could be a promising therapy for HMGB1-mediated inflammatory diseases. Materials and Methods: In this study, we produced a new adsorbent material by chemically treating polystyrene fiber. We first determined whether the adsorbent material efficiently adsorbed HMGB1 in vitro using a bovine HMGB1 solution and a plasma sample from a swine model of acute liver failure. We then constructed a column by embedding fabric sheets of the newly developed fibers into a cartridge and tested the ability of the column to reduce plasma HMGB1 levels during a 4-hour extracorporeal hemoperfusion in a swine model of acute liver failure. Results: The in vitro adsorption test of the new fiber showed high performance for HMGB1 adsorption (96% adsorption in the bovine HMGB1 solution and 94% in the acute liver failure swine plasma, 2 h incubation at 37°C; p < 0.05 vs. incubation with no adsorbent). In the in vivo study, the ratio of the HMGB1 concentration at the outlet versus the inlet of the column was significantly lower in swine hemoperfused with the newly developed column (53 and 61% at the beginning and end of perfusion, respectively) than in those animals hemoperfused with the control column (94 and 93% at the beginning and end of perfusion, respectively; p < 0.05). Moreover, the normalized plasma level of HMGB1 was significantly lower during perfusion with the new column than with the control column (p < 0.05 at 1, 2, and 3 h after initiation of perfusion). Conclusion: These data suggest that the newly developed column has the potential to effectively adsorb HMGB1 during hemoperfusion in swine.
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