Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are GATA3-expressing type 2 cytokine-producing innate lymphocytes that are present in various organs throughout the body. Basically, ILC2s are tissue-resident cells associated with a variety of pathological conditions in each tissue. Differences in the tissue-specific properties of ILC2s are formed by the post-natal tissue environment; however, diversity exists among ILC2s within each localized tissue due to developmental timing and activation. Diversity between steady-state and activated ILC2s in mice and humans has been gradually clarified with the advancement of single-cell RNA-seq technology. Another layer of complexity is that ILC2s can acquire other ILC-like functions, depending on their tissue environment. Further, ILC2s with immunological memory and exhausted ILC2s are both present in tissues, and the nature of ILC2s varies with senescence. To clarify how ILC2s affect human diseases, research should be conducted with a comprehensive understanding of ILC2s, taking into consideration the diversity of ILC2s rather than a snapshot of a single section. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the heterogeneity of ILC2s in the lungs and highlight a novel field of immunology.
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