Background: Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) is often used with posterior spinal fixation (PSF) to treat adult spinal deformity (ASD). However, the amount of intraoperative blood loss (IBL) reported for XLIF may underestimate the total blood loss (TBL). The objective of this study was to determine the total perioperative blood loss in XLIF for ASD. Methods: We assessed 30 consecutive ASD patients with Schwab-SRS type L (mean age: 68.7 ± 8.2 years; mean follow-up 2.0 ± 1.3 years) who were treated by multilevel XLIF (mean, 2.5 ± 0.6 levels) followed by PSF after 3–5 days. We calculated the TBL after XLIF by the Gross equation, by hemoglobin (Hb) balance, and by the Orthopedic Surgery Transfusion Hemoglobin European Overview (OSTHEO) formula. We defined hidden blood loss (HBL) as the difference between the TBL and IBL. Pearson correlation, Spearman correlation, and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to investigate the risk factors related to HBL. Results: Post-XLIF blood tests showed a significant decrease in the Hb (from 11.8 ± 1.1 mg/dl to 10.6 ± 1.1 mg/dl) and hematocrit (from 36.0 ± 3.2% to 32.5 ± 3.2%). Although the mean IBL was relatively small (33 ± 52 mL), we calculated the TBL as 291 ± 171 mL (Gross equation) and the HBL as 258 ± 168 mL by Gross equation, which was 8 times greater than the IBL on average. There was no difference in the results obtained using the three methods. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated preoperative lumber lordosis was the risk factor of high HBL (Odds ratio = 1.085, 95%CI: 1.006–1.170, p = 0.035). Conclusions: The HBL in XLIF was 8 times greater than the IBL. During the perioperative course of correction and fusion surgery for ASD with XLIF, surgeons need to pay attention not to underestimate the TBL.
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