A 68-year-old man with past medical history of multiple cerebral infarctions presented to our hospital with subacute paresis. His vital signs on presentation were normal, and his physical examination, other than his neurological findings, was unremarkable. Neurological examinations suggested cerebellar ataxia. Laboratory testing confirmed positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. His CD4-positive lymphocyte count was 45/μL, and HIV-RNA was 2.3 × 105 copies/mL. Brain computed tomography (CT) scan revealed multiple mass lesions and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) revealed periventricular hyperintensities, which suggested multiple malignant lymphoma and HIV encephalopathy. His state of consciousness had gradually worsened. Eventually, he died one month after admission. The autopsy unexpectedly showed disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). KS lesions were found in the stomach, small intestine, liver, spleen, mesentery and lungs. KS was not observed on his skin. Gross findings revealed multiple nodular lesions in each organ, and hematoxylin and eosin staining showed proliferation of spindle cells with vascular proliferation. Immunostaining was positive both for endothelial marker (CD31 and von Willebrand factor) and lymphatic endothelial marker (D2-40), which were consistent with KS.KS is the most common tumor in AIDS patients. It is caused by the human herpes-virus 8 infection. It manifests an indolent clinical course and mostly involves cutaneous lesions over the lower limbs, trunk and oral cavity. In this case, autopsy revealed disseminated KS pathologically, which was unrecognized before his death. This case highlights the possible existence of disseminated KS even without its cutaneous findings.
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