Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is characterized by an encapsulated collection of old blood. Although CSDH has become the most frequent pathologic entity in daily neurosurgical practice, there are some unresolved research questions. In particular, the causes and recurrent risk factors of CSDH remain as an object of debate. The split of the dural border layer forms a few tiers of dural border cells over the arachnoid layer. Tissue plasminogen activator plays an important role as a key factor of defective coagulation. Historically, CSDH has often been treated via burr hole craniostomy using a closed drainage system. Several different operative strategies and peri-operative strategies such as the addition of burr holes, addition of cavity irrigation, position of drain, or postural position, have been described previously. Although the direction of the drainage tube, residual air, low intensity of T1-weighted images on MRI, and niveau formation have been reported as risk factors for recurrence, antiplatelet or anticoagulant drug use has not yet been verified as a risk factor. Recently, pharmaceutical strategies, including atorvastatin, significantly improved the neurological function in CSDH patients. Many case series, without randomization, have been reported; and given its promising result, several randomized clinical trials using pharmaceutical as well as operative and perioperative strategies were initiated to obtain sufficient data. In contrast, relatively fewer basic studies have achieved clinical applications in CSDH, although it is one of the most common clinical entities. Further scientific basic research may be essential for achieving a novel treatment strategy for CSDH.
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