We performed a retrospective study comparing clinical outcomes between patients with initially diagnosed muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) without a history of non-MIBC (NMIBC) and those with MIBC that progressed from NMIBC. A history of NMIBC was independently associated with cancer death in cT2-T4a MIBC patients treated with radical cystectomy and without lymph node involvement. MIBC that progresses from NMIBC may not respond to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Purpose: To investigate whether a history of non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) plays a prognostic role in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) treated with radical cystectomy in the era when neoadjuvant chemotherapy was established as standard therapy for MIBC. Patients and Methods: A total of 282 patients who were diagnosed with cT2-T4aN0M0 bladder cancer treated with open radical cystectomy at our institutions were included. Initially diagnosed MIBC without a history of NMIBC was defined as primary MIBC group (n = 231), and MIBC that progressed from NMIBC was defined as progressive MIBC (n = 51). Results: The rate of cT3/4a tumors was significantly higher in the primary MIBC group than in the progressive MIBC group (P =.004). Five-year recurrence-free survival and cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates for the primary MIBC group versus progressive MIBC group were 68.2% versus 55.9% (P =.039) and 76.1% versus 61.6% (P =.005), respectively. Progressive MIBC (hazard ratio, 2.170; P =.008) was independently associated with cancer death. In the primary MIBC group, the 5-year CSS rate in patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy was 85.4%, which was significantly higher than that in patients without (71.5%, P =.023). In the progressive MIBC group, no significant differences were observed in CSS between patients treated with and without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusion: MIBC that progressed from NMIBC had a significantly worse clinical outcome than MIBC without a history of NMIBC and may not respond as well to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. These results are informative, even for NMIBC patients treated with conservative intravesical therapy.
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