The recent development of nanotechnology has already produced clinically applicable "nanodrugs," which are largely dependent on a novel concept for the drug delivery system. Thus the elucidation of local pharmacokinetics of nanodrugs is indispensable for the further development of nanomedicine; however, the detailed pathophysiology associated with nano-sized materials especially in pathologic lesions has not been well-described. In this review article, the microscopic appearance of vascular pericytes in addition to endothelial cells is discussed in the normal state and also in several pathological conditions which could be the major targets for nanomedicine. Moreover, the role of stromal tissue including myofibroblasts is also focused on, as well as inflammatory cells. Finally, the significance of disease-specific tissue structure in the establishment of personalized nanomedicine is discussed.
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