This study investigated the association between negative parenting (NP) and conduct problems (CP) in 6-year-old twins, taking into account the severity of hyperactivity/inattention problems (HIAP). Analyses of the data from 1,677 pairs of twins and their parents revealed that the shared environmental covariance between NP and CP was moderated by the level of HIAP but not by CP or NP, where the shared environmental covariance was larger in children with higher levels of HIAP than in children with lower levels of HIAP. The genetic covariance between NP and CP was not moderated by the level of HIAP, whereas it was larger in the group with lower levels of CP and NP than in the group with higher levels. These results suggest that severe HIAP strengthens shared environmental associations between NP and CP and that interventions focusing on the shared environmental component of NP would be effective for parents and children with severe HIAP.
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