Chronic inflammation is thought to promote tumorigenesis and metastasis by several mechanisms, such as affecting tumor cells directly, establishing a tumor-supporting microenvironment, enhancing tumor angiogenesis, and suppressing antitumor immunity. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of how inflammation induces the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, such as increasing the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and immunosuppressive molecules, inducing immune checkpoint molecules and cytotoxic T-cell exhaustion, and accumulating regulatory T (Treg) cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). The suppression of antitumor immunity by inflammation is especially examined in the liver and colorectal cancer. In addition, chronic inflammation is induced during aging and causes age-related diseases, including cancer, by affecting immunity. Therefore, we also discuss the age-related diseases regulated by inflammation, especially in the liver and colon.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry