Obesity prevalence continues to increase in both adults and children worldwide and greatly contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. Although there are some anti-obesity drugs globally available for clinical use, their inadequate effectiveness coupled with safety concerns sometimes discourage the widespread use of anti-obesity medication. Because of its prolonged therapeutic effect and low frequency of administration, a therapeutic vaccine may be an attractive strategy for the prevention and treatment of obesity. Over the last two decades, several attempts have been made to develop vaccines for the control of obesity. Animal studies have shown that vaccines targeting ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, adipocytes, somatostatin, and adenovirus 36 successfully led to a reduction in weight gain without serious adverse effects. This chapter provides an overview of recent progress toward a therapeutic vaccine against obesity.
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