Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is commonly associated with diabetes mellitus (DM); however, the impact of DM on cervical spine surgery for OPLL remains unclear. This study was performed to evaluate the influence of diabetes DM on the outcomes following cervical spine surgery for OPLL. In total, 478 patients with cervical OPLL who underwent surgical treatment were prospectively recruited from April 2015 to July 2017. Functional measurements were conducted at baseline and at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after surgery using JOA and JOACMEQ scores. The incidence of postoperative complications was categorized into early (_30 days) and late (>30 days), depending on the time from surgery. From the initial group of 478 patients, 402 completed the 2-year follow-up and were included in the analysis. Of the 402 patients, 127 (32%) had DM as a comorbid disease. The overall incidence of postoperative complications was significantly higher in patients with DM than in patients without DM in both the early and late postoperative periods. The patients with DM had a significantly lower JOA score and JOACMEQ scores in the domains of lower extremity function and quality of life than those without DM at the 2-year follow-up.
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