ABSTRACT: The type of periprocedural antithrombotic regimen that is the safest and most effective in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients on oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy has not been fully investigated. We aimed to retrospectively investigate the in-hospital bleeding outcomes of patients receiving OAC and antiplatelet therapies during PCI using Japanese nationwide multicenter registry data. A total of 26,938 patients who underwent PCI with OAC and antiplatelet therapies between 2016 and 2017 were included. We investigated in-hospital bleeding requiring blood transfusion, mortality, and stent thrombosis according to the antithrombotic regimens used at the time of PCI: OAC + single antiplatelet therapy (double therapy) and OAC + dual antiplatelet therapy (triple therapy). The antiplatelet agents included aspirin, clopidogrel, and prasugrel. The OAC agents included warfarin and direct OACs. Adjusting the dose of OAC or intermitting OAC before PCI was at each operator's discretion. In the study population [mean age (SD), 73.5 (9.5) years; women, 21.5%], the double therapy and triple therapy groups comprised 5546 (20.6%) and 21,392 (79.4%) patients, respectively. Bleeding requiring transfusion was not significantly different between the groups [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 0.700; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.420-1.160; P = 0.165] (triple therapy as a reference). Mortality was not significantly different (aOR, 1.370; 95% CI, 0.790-2.360; P = 0.258). Stent thrombosis was significantly different between the groups (aOR, 3.310; 95% CI, 1.040-10.500; P = 0.042) (triple therapy as a reference). In conclusion, for patients on OAC therapy who underwent PCI, periprocedural triple therapy may be safe with respect to in-hospital bleeding risks. However, further investigations are warranted to establish the safety and efficacy of periprocedural triple therapy.
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