Some patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) develop systolic dysfunction, called the dilated phase of HCM (d-HCM), which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We conducted a retrospective study using an HCM database to clarify the incidence, clinical characteristics, and long-term outcomes of d-HCM. We analyzed an HCM cohort consisting of 434 patients (273 with apical HCM and 161 with non-apical HCM; 18 had obstructive HCM, 16 had dilated HCM, and 127 had other HCM) diagnosed by echocardiography in our hospital between 1991 and 2010. The follow-up period was 8.4 ± 6.7 years. The mean age at final follow-up was 67 ± 14 years, and 304 patients (70%) were men. The mean age of the 16 d-HCM patients at the initial visit was 45 ± 17 years, the age at final follow-up was 59 ± 18 years, and 13 were men. Thirteen d-HCM patients developed atrial fibrillation and six patients developed ischemic stroke. Twelve d-HCM patients were implanted with cardiac devices: one pacemaker, nine implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, and two cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator. Five patients died of progressive heart failure at the age of 61 ± 23 years. The age at the initial visit and final follow-up were lower and the NYHA class, brain natriuretic peptide levels, and left ventricular function at initial evaluation were worse in the d-HCM group. Univariate analysis demonstrated that a lower age at the initial visit was associated with d-HCM (hazard ratio 0.955/1 year increase; 95% CI 0.920–0.991, P = 0.015). In our HCM cohort, the incidence of d-HCM was 4%. A high prevalence of atrial fibrillation and cerebral infarction and poor prognosis were noted in this group, despite patients undergoing medication and device implantation.
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