[Objective] Lynch syndrome (LS) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder caused by a germline pathogenic variant in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Endometrial cancer frequently precedes another LS-associated tumor. This study aimed to clarify the incidence and features of LS in young Japanese endometrial cancer patients. [Methods] Sixty-five patients aged 40 years or younger, who were diagnosed with endometrial cancer, were enrolled in this study. Targeted sequencing of a hereditary colorectal cancer-related gene panel including the MMR genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 was conducted on DNA samples extracted from blood cells. [Results] Overall, 6 missense variants (2 in MSH2, 2 in MSH6, and 2 in PMS2), 1 inframe deletion variant in MSH2, 1 splice variant in MSH2, and 1 two-base substitution in the 3’ untranslated region in MLH1 were detected in 9 (13.8%) patients. Among these, the splice variant c.1276G > T (p.Ile411_Gly426del16) in MSH2 was annotated as pathogenic, while other variants were of uncertain significance. The patient with the pathogenic variant had a family history of endometrial and colorectal cancer and was diagnosed with endometrial cancer at age 35. [Conclusion] The incidence of LS among Japanese endometrial cancer patients of reproductive age (≤ 40 years) in this study was at least 1.5%; however, 12.3% of patients had variants of uncertain significance in MMR genes.
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