The pandemic of COVID-19 is still ongoing, and many studies on serum antibodies have been reported, however, there are few studies about asymptomatic and mild patients. In this study, we enrolled 44 COVID-19 patients with relatively mild disease and 48 pre-pandemic controls. We measured serum antibodies against extracellular domain, S1 domain, and receptor-binding domain of Spike and N protein, examined neutralization titers by authentic virus neutralization assay and newly-developed bead/cell-based Spike-ACE2 inhibition assay, and compared them with clinical features. Most of these antibodies, including neutralizing titers, were mutually correlated, and the production of antibodies were associated with low Ct values of PCR test, disease severity, symptoms especially pneumonia, lymphopenia, and serological test including CRP, LD, D-dimer, and procalcitonin. Notably, 87.5% of asymptomatic and 23.5% of mild patients did not have antibody against SARS-CoV-2. Our results revealed the inadequate acquisition of humoral immunity in patients with asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 patients.
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