Background: Heart failure (HF) is a risk factor for adverse post-procedural outcome after revascularization; however, it is unclear how left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) and clinical HF symptoms affect percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) outcomes. We investigated the characteristics and long-term outcomes of patients with clinical HF or LVSD after PCI. Methods: This was a Japanese multicenter registry study of adult patients receiving PCI. Among 4689 consecutive patients who underwent PCI at 15 hospitals from January 2009 to December 2012, we analyzed 2634 (56.2%) with documented left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). They were divided into four groups based on clinical HF (symptoms or HF hospitalization) and LVEF [≥35% and <35% (HF due to LVSD)]. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), comprising all-cause death, acute coronary syndrome, HF hospitalization, performance of coronary artery bypass grafting, and stroke within 2 years after the initial PCI. Results: Our findings revealed 354 patients (13.4%) with HF (clinical HF, n = 173, 48.9%; LVSD, n = 132, 37.3%; both, n = 49; 13.8%). The incidence of MACE was higher in patients with clinical HF or LVSD, and was largely due to higher non-cardiac death and HF hospitalization. After adjustment, clinical HF (hazard ratio 2.16, 95% confidence interval; 1.49−3.14) and lower LVEF (per 10%, hazard ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval; 0.81−0.99) were independently associated with higher MACE risk. Conclusions: Clinical HF and LVSD were independently associated with adverse long-term clinical outcomes, particularly with non-cardiac death and HF readmission, in patients treated with PCI.
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