The residential environment clearly affects health. For example, a previous study has established relationships between specific environmental factors and the health status of residents in detached houses. However, studies focused on apartment buildings are still insufficient. Therefore, in this study, a large nationwide questionnaire survey of residents of apartments was conducted. The residential environment was subjectively evaluated using a Japanese Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency (CASBEE) tool: the CASBEE Health Checklist. The results showed that residents living in apartments who score higher on the checklist tend to have a lower prevalence of various diseases, indicating that residential environment may be an important determinant of health. Furthermore, the odds ratios for residents living in apartment buildings were lower for diabetes mellitus, hypertensive diseases, heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and inflammatory polyarthropathies compared with residents living in detached houses. These findings support the general link between the residential environment and residents' health and suggest that housing typology is an important factor.
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