In the present paper, we discuss three unintended consequences of European Integration; the division between the pro- and anti-integrationists, doubts on the benefits of the free movements and the burden of the welfare state. Since 2017, Europe has regained confidence and optimism has returned due to sustained economic recovery and election victories of prointegration politicians, most notably in France. The European Union is embarking on co-operation in defense and security, providing a new reason to support integration. Uncertainty over Brexit and immigration remain among the causes for grave concern. But Europe and Japan have taken a joint stance against protectionism, while Asia is yet to decide whether to do so as an integrated entity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Economics, Econometrics and Finance(all)
- Political Science and International Relations
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law