In this paper, we address the challenging task of estimating the distance between different users in a Millimeter Wave (mmWave) massive Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (mMIMO) system. The conventional Time of Arrival (ToA) and Angle of Arrival (AoA) based methods need users under the Line-of-Sight (LoS) scenario. Under the Non-LoS (NLoS) scenario, the fingerprint-based method can extract the fingerprint that includes the location information of users from the channel state information (CSI). However, high accuracy CSI estimation involves a huge overhead and high computational complexity. Thus, we design a new type of fingerprint generated by beam sweeping. In other words, we do not have to know the CSI to generate fingerprint. In general, each user can record the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) of the received beams by performing beam sweeping. Such measured RSSI values, formatted in a matrix, could be seen as beam energy image containing the angle and location information. However, we do not use the beam energy image as the fingerprint directly. Instead, we use the difference between two beam energy images as the fingerprint to train a Deep Neural Network (DNN) that learns the relationship between the fingerprints and the distance between these two users. Because the proposed fingerprint is rich in terms of the users’ location information, the DNN can easily learn the relationship between the difference between two beam energy images and the distance between those two users. We term it as the DNN-based inter-user distance (IUD) estimation method. Nonetheless, we investigate the possibility of using a super-resolution network to reduce the involved beam sweeping overhead. Using super-resolution to increase the resolution of low-resolution beam energy images obtained by the wide beam sweeping for IUD estimation can facilitate considerate improvement in accuracy performance. We evaluate the proposed DNN-based IUD estimation method by using original images of resolution 4 × 4, 8 × 8, and 16 × 16. Simulation results show that our method can achieve an average distance estimation error equal to 0.13 m for a coverage area of 60 × 30 m2. Moreover, our method outperforms the state-of-the-art IUD estimation methods that rely on users’ location information.
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