It has been recently predicted that the co-doping of an acceptor (nitrogen) and a donor (aluminum, gallium, indium) in a 2:1 ratio will dope ZnO p-type due to a reduction in the Madelung energy making the nitrogen acceptor energy level more shallow. We have been growing gallium and nitrogen co-doped ZnO films by radical-source molecular-beam epitaxy by use of oxygen and nitrogen radicals supplied via rf radical source cells. Diode-like current-voltage characteristics and donor acceptor pair-like photoluminescence emission were observed for a Ga and N doped ZnO film grown on an undoped ZnO buffer layer. However, Hall measurements revealed that the conductivity was n-type. Formation of a non-ZnO phase in the sample was confirmed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements. Zn and Zn+O secondary ion intensities fell sharply by two orders of magnitude in going from the undoped ZnO layer to the highly co-doped ZnO. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated the formation of ZnGa2O4.
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