Dynamic tuning of nanoscale coloration by exploiting localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) combined with an interference coloration mechanism is demonstrated experimentally. When interference between the scattering field from AuNPs and the reflected field from the substrate is observed under back-scattering white-light microscopy, the AuNPs exhibit various colors depending on their distance to the substrate. When the numerical aperture of the microscope objective is optimized, much greater coverage of the color space than was achieved with previously reported plasmon-based approaches is attained. Also, color tunability is examined by exploiting the temperature-induced volume change of a temperature-responsive hydrogel with embedded AuNPs to dynamically modify the distance to the substrate.
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