The relatively low level of internationalization in Japan's service industries is a cause of real concern among policy-makers and service industry executives. Explanations have focused on distinctive features of Japan's culture, particularly its service culture, and idiosyncratically demanding customers. Two additional factors are also of significance: the complexity of the customer interface and process embeddedness in the home country. Mapping service sectors in terms of these two dimensions offers insights into the challenges faced by Japanese service firms, while also providing a framework for assessing home country effects in general.
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