Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic cerebrovascular disease characterized by progressive steno-occlusion of the arteries of the circle of Willis, accompanied by collateral vessel formation in the basal ganglia [1, 2]. Involuntary movements are relatively rare symptoms of this condition, and their frequency is estimated to range from 3 to 6% [3-5]. However, the incidence could be higher, if limb shaking, a specific type of transient ischemic attack (TIA), is also included. In this chapter, we focus on moyamoya disease-induced involuntary movements, and the patient characteristics, symptoms, underlying mechanisms, and treatment of this condition are discussed.
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