Purpose: Very few studies have investigated the efficacy of ganglionated plexus ablation during the conventional maze procedure. In this study, we sought to evaluate its additive effect in reducing recurrent atrial fibrillation after concomitant maze surgery. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of 79 patients who underwent Cox maze IV concomitantly with open-heart surgery with (GP group) or without (Maze group) ganglionated plexus mapping. All active ganglionated plexuses were ablated. The two groups were compared and their follow-up data were analyzed. Results: Active ganglionated plexuses were found in 81% of patients who underwent ganglionated plexus mapping. The rates of freedom from atrial fibrillation at 1 year in the GP and Maze groups were 77 and 75%, respectively. The cumulative freedom from atrial fibrillation at follow-up (27.7 ± 17.3 months) was comparable in the two groups (p = 0.427). A multivariate analysis revealed that persistent atrial fibrillation for more than 90 months was an independent predictor of recurrent atrial fibrillation. Conclusion: Ganglionated plexus ablation with Cox maze IV did not reduce the incidence of recurrent atrial fibrillation in comparison to Maze alone.
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