Hoshinoamide C (1), an antiparasitic lipopeptide, was isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Caldora penicillata. Its planar structure was elucidated by spectral analyses, mainly 2D NMR, and the absolute configurations of the α-amino acid moieties were determined by degradation reactions followed by chiral-phase HPLC analyses. To clarify the absolute configuration of an unusual amino acid moiety, we synthesized two possible diastereomers of hoshinoamide C and determined its absolute configuration based on a comparison of their spectroscopic data with those of the natural compound. Hoshinoamide C (1) did not exhibit any cytotoxicity against HeLa or HL60 cells at 10 μM, but inhibited the growth of the parasites responsible for malaria (IC50 0.96 μM) and African sleeping sickness (IC50 2.9 μM).
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