In 2017, the Japan Society of Clinical Oncology (JSCO) published the JSCO Clinical Practice Guidelines 2017 for Fertility Preservation in Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer Patients. These were the first Japanese guidelines to address issues of oncofertility. In this field of medicine, sustained close cooperation between oncologists and reproductive specialists is essential from the diagnosis of cancer until many years after completion of cancer treatment. These JSCO guidelines were intended to guide multidisciplinary medical staff in considering the availability of fertility preservation options and to help them decide whether to provide fertility preservation to childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer patients before treatment starts, with the ultimate goal of improving patient survivorship. The guidelines are presented as Parts 1 and 2. This article (Part 1) summarizes the goals of the guidelines and the methods used to develop them and provides an overview of fertility preservation across all oncology areas. It includes general remarks on the basic concepts surrounding fertility preservation and explanations of the impacts of cancer treatment on gonadal function by sex and treatment modality and of the options for protecting/preserving gonadal function and makes recommendations based on 4 clinical questions. Part 2 of these guidelines provides specific recommendations on fertility preservation in 8 types of cancer (gynecologic, breast, urologic, pediatric, hematologic, bone and soft tissue, brain, and digestive).
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