Background: Few reports about surgical outcomes in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) have been based on reliable nationwide databases. Here, we analyzed the incidence, surgical outcome, and operative risk factors using Japanese nationwide database. Methods: Characteristics and perioperative data from 622 patients who underwent curative-intent surgery for MPM between January 2014 and December 2017 were recorded from National Clinical Database of Japan. We analyzed the incidence, surgical outcomes, and risk factors for surgical complications after 2 surgical procedures (extrapleural pneumonectomy [EPP] and pleurectomy/decortication [P/D]). Results: During 4 years, EPP was performed in 279 patients and P/D in 343. EPP was more frequently performed in institutions less experienced in MPM, while P/D was more frequently performed in institutions well experienced in MPM (P < .001), especially in high-volume centers with more than 10 cases during this period. P/D was more frequently performed, especially in high-volume centers. The morbidity rates were 45.2% in EPP and 35.9% in P/D. Heart failure and pneumonia were most frequent in EPP, while prolonged air leakage was most frequent in P/D. Thirty-day and in-hospital mortality rates were 1.1% and 3.2% (EPP) and 1.2% and 3.2% (P/D), respectively. Regression analyses revealed that higher age (>65 years) was associated with operative complications in EPP (odds ratio, 3.56 [95% confidence interval, 1.26-8.56]), whereas no risk factor was observed in P/D. Conclusions: In Japanese nationwide annual database, P/D was more frequently performed, especially in high-volume centers. Morbidity was higher in EPP than P/D; however, the mortality rates were quite low in Japan regardless surgical procedures.
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