Kidney cancer accounts for approximately 2% of all cancers worldwide, with renal cell carcinoma being the most common form and this report is focused on renal cell carcinoma. Globally, the incidence and mortality rates are increasing by 2-3% per decade. Kidney cancer is less common in Asia compared with the West. Cigarette smoking, obesity, acquired cystic kidney disease and inherited susceptibility are known risk factors for kidney cancer. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines recommend surgical excision as first line of treatment for Stage I, II or III kidney cancer patients and Stage IV patients with resectable tumours. Immunotherapy has a 20-year history in treatment of metastatic kidney cancer. Highdose interleukin-2 (IL-2) is administered in some countries, whereas low-dose IL-2 and interferon-alpha (IFN-α) are popular in Japan. Molecular-targeted drugs, including sunitinib, bevacizumab and sorafenib, are being used for previously untreated and refractory patients. Asian and non-Asian populations have shown large differences in the incidences of adverse events with sorafenib and sunitinib. Consensus Statement: Kidney cancer is relatively uncommon in Asia compared with the West, but its incidence is increasing in more developed Asian nations. Guidelines from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, etc., for treating metastatic renal cell carcinoma are based on Phase III clinical trials conducted primarily in Western patients. Targeted therapies are now becoming primary recommendations, but efficacy/toxicity data from Asian patients are lacking. Some drugs cause adverse effects in Asians because their recommended dosages are optimal for Caucasians but may be too high for Asians. Further research is necessary to develop optimal treatment strategies for Asians.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cancer Research