Background: LAVV have historically been avoided in children after solid organ transplantation. However, it has been reported that post-transplant, children without severe immunosuppression can generate anti-varicella antibody after immunization but the duration of the response is not clear. Furthermore, the origin of the varicella virus in immunosuppressed patients who develop varicella after vaccination is often unclear. Clinical progress: A female child received LAVV 30 months after a living donor liver transplant at the age of 2 months. Varicella rash appeared on the trunk 16 days after vaccination and gradually spread over the body. The patient was treated with intravenous acyclovir followed by oral therapy and recovered fully. The virus detected in blisters was derived from the vaccine-type strain. Paired sera before and after the onset of varicella showed an increase in antibody titer. However, 2 years after onset, the antibody titer decreased to undetectable again. Conclusions: This was an informative case of varicella due to vaccine strain attenuated virus. Antibody levels were not maintained over many years. Although varicella was caused by the vaccine-type strain, repeated vaccinations may be necessary for post-transplant patients who develop varicella.
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