Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in 2004 in 105 breast milk samples collected from 13 regions of Japan (Hokkaido, Akita, Miyagi, Tokyo, Gifu, Fukui, Kyoto, Hyogo, Wakayama, Shimane, Yamaguchi, Kochi and Okinawa). Six congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153 and BDE-154) were determined by gas chromatography /mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Total PBDE levels ranged from 0.01 to 23.0 ng/g lipid (geometric mean (GM), 1.34 ng/g lipid). BDE-47 (GM, 0.66 ng/g lipid, 59% of ∑PBDE) was the most abundant congener present in breast milk and was detected in 99% of the samples. Total PBDE levels were higher in northern Japan than in other regions. We analyzed the effects of occupation, age, smoking status, alcohol consumption and number of deliveries on total PBDE levels. None of these factors were significantly associated with the level of PBDEs. The present study revealed that the current level of exposure to PBDEs in Japan is lower than that in the USA or Sweden. GMs (ng/g lipid) (GSD, geometric standard deviation) and medians (ng/g lipid) of PBDE levels in each district are as follows: Hokkaido 2.70 (1.70), 2.74; Akita 4.49 (2.19), 5.44; Miyagi 1.77 (4.37), 1.11; Tokyo 1.39 (2.09), 1.63, Gifu 2.83 (4.79), 2.23; Fukui 1.05 (2.34), 1.18; Kyoto 1.31 (2.95), 1.33; Hyogo 1.02 (2.69), 0.88; Wakayama 1.33 (3.80), 1.70; Shimane 0.83 (2.51), 0.66; Yamaguchi 1.74 (2.82), 1.76; Kochi 0.50 (2.69), 0.74 and Okinawa 1.91 (2.75), 1.22. This is the first large-scale study of current PBDE levels in breast milk in Japan.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- 化学 (全般)